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Artikel Gambar 2011 -2012 English) » Travel Health : Vaccines & Preventing Diseases Abroad

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Travel Health

Health Perils in Paradise?

Some of the world's most spectacular destinations are also home to some of the world's nastiest bugs. Yellow fever, malaria, and even polio can strike international travelers. Protect yourself by learning which vaccines or health precautions are advised for your destination. To give vaccines time to take effect, see your doctor or travel clinic 4-6 weeks before your trip.



Polio Booster

If you're planning an African safari, you may need a polio booster. This debilitating disease is still active in many parts of Africa and Asia. The germs can be spread through food, water, and contact with an infected person. Even if you received a polio vaccine as a child, you may need a booster to make sure you're protected against all three types of the virus.


Yellow Fever Vaccine

Along the border of Argentina and Brazil, Iguazu Falls attracts visitors from all over the world. Unfortunately, it also attracts mosquitoes that carry the yellow fever virus. Yellow fever occurs in parts of South and Central America, as well as tropical Africa, and it can be life-threatening. Vaccination is required to visit certain countries, with a booster shot needed after 10 years. Avoiding mosquito bites is important, too.


Typhoid Fever Vaccine

Typhoid fever is a life-threatening infection common in the developing world. It's caused by bacteria found in contaminated food or drink. Several hundred Americans get typhoid fever every year – most while visiting Asia, South America, or Africa. The CDC recommends the typhoid vaccine at least 1-2 weeks before travel to these regions. If you've had the vaccine in the past, ask if you need a booster.


Tetanus Booster

Before planning any adventure travel, make sure you're up to date on your tetanus shot. Tetanus infections often result from skin injuries, including frostbite, burns, or punctures. The culprit is a bacterium that occurs in all parts of the world. Tetanus can be fatal. Booster shots are recommended every 10 years.


Hepatitis A Vaccine

One of the great pleasures of international travel is trying a variety of exotic cuisines. Unfortunately, contaminated food or water can spread infections, including hepatitis A. This viral infection, which causes inflammation of the liver, is common throughout the developing world. If you were not vaccinated as a child, ask your doctor about getting the vaccine series before venturing abroad.


Hepatitis B Vaccine

The hepatitis B virus also causes liver inflammation, but is spread through blood or other body fluids infected with the virus rather than food. Many chronically infected people carry the virus in Africa, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Pacific Islands, Caribbean Islands, and the Amazon River basin. The CDC recommends the hepatitis B vaccine for all travelers to these areas, especially adventure travelers, missionaries, Peace Corps volunteers, and military personnel.


Rabies Vaccine

Rabies is found on all continents, except Antarctica, and is spread through the bite of an infected animal. Street dogs in Africa, Asia, and South America pose the greatest risk to travelers, followed by monkeys living among the temples of Asia. Without treatment, rabies is fatal. A three-dose vaccine is available, though it doesn't eliminate the need for treatment after a bite. It buys you time to reach medical care, and cuts the doses needed.


Flu Vaccine

If you get an annual flu vaccine, factor your travel plans into the timing of your vaccine. In the Southern Hemisphere, flu epidemics are most common from April through September. So families planning a summer vacation in Australia, for example, should make sure they are vaccinated before departing.


Malaria Precautions

Malaria is a life-threatening disease carried by mosquitoes. It is most common in sub-Saharan Africa, but also occurs in parts of South Asia and South America. Travelers should ask their doctor about the pros and cons of preventive antimalarial medications. Other strategies include using mosquito repellants (30% - 50% DEET for adults), wearing long sleeves and pants outdoors, and sleeping under insecticide-treated mosquito nets.


Dengue Fever Precautions

In travelers returning from the Caribbean, South Central Asia, and Central America, dengue fever is the most common cause of fever. Recently, small numbers of the mosquito-borne illness have been reported in Key West, Fla. While most cases are mild, some people develop dengue hemorrhagic fever, which can be fatal. There is no vaccine, but travelers can reduce their risk by protecting against mosquito bites.

Tuberculosis Precautions

Tuberculosis (TB) is more common in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, although it is found throughout the world. The infection is spread when a contagious person coughs. Travelers who spend time working or volunteering in hospitals, prisons, or homeless shelters have a higher risk of exposure to TB. If you feel you may have been exposed, it's important to get a skin test. Prompt treatment is the key to avoiding complications.


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